Posted on: Sunday, September 17, 2017
Period of English literature
- Anglo-Saxon period (450 -1066)
- Middle English period (1066-1500)
- Anglo-Norman period (1066-1350)
- The age of Chaucer (1350-1400)
- The Renaissance (1500-1660)
- Puritan period (1620-1660)
- Non-classical period (1660-1798)
- Romantic period (1798-1832)
- Victorian period (1832-1901)
- Modern age (The 20th century)
Anglo-Saxon period (AD450 – 1066).
- The oldest period in English literature.
- The first epic of this period is ‘Beowulf’ (poem). Unknown Writer
- Venerable Bade’ was the 1sthistorian in English literature. He was the ‘Father of English learning’.
- King Alfred the great is sometimes regarded as ‘The founder of English prose’.
Middle English period (1066-1500)
(a). Anglo Norman period (1066-1350AD)
- Roger Bacon – Opus Minus
(b).The age of Chaucer (1350-1400)
- The father of English poem – Geoffrey Chaucer (also a politician).
- His works – The House of Fame, The Canterbury Tales, The parliament of Fouls.
- John Wycliffe
- ‘The father of English prose’. He translated the Bible into English for the first time.
(c).The Renaissance (1500-1660)
- Preparation for the Renaissance (1500-1558)
- Renaissance is an Italian word which means Rebirth. *
- A salient feature of the Renaissance is – Humanism, Nationalism, Aestheticis
- Sir Thomas Wyatt: The first sonneteer in English literature.
- Sir Thomas Moor (essayist) : Utopia
- The Elizabethan Age (1558-1603)
- The golden age of English literature – the Elizabethan age
- Elizabethan tragedy is centered on – revenge
- The Elizabethan age was replete with songs & lyrics. This is why; this age is called ‘a nest of singing birds’.
- The first English tragedy – Ferrex & Porrex.
- University Wits – Those playwrights who were highly educated in Oxford & Cambridge University. 5 of them born same year 1558. Thomas Kyd, Bacon, Marlowe etc.
- Edmund Spenser.: The poet of poets, Works –The Ruins of Time
- Christopher Marlowe
- Was an English playwright & poet. The greatest dramatist of English literature before Shakespeare.
- Works – Doctor Faustus, Edward-II
- Thomas Kyd (playwright): The Spanish Tragedy(1strevenged tragedy)
- William Shakespeare (23rdApril 1564-1616)
- Is famous for English playwright of sixteenth century. (37 plays)
- Tragedy – ‘Romeo & Juliet’, ‘Julius Caesar’ , ‘King Lear’, Othello, Macbeth, Hamlet,
- Comedy – Love’s Labour Lost, The Tempest(last plays), All’s well that Ends well*, As you like it*, The Merchant of Venice*, Comedy of Errors, The Taming of the shrew*,
- Historical- Anthony & Cleopatra,
- Poem – Venus & Adonis, The Rape of Lucrece.
- ‘To be or not to be, that is a question’ a quotation from – Hamlet. *
- There are more things in haven & earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in our philosophy – Hamlet. *
- There is a divinity that shapes our ends’ is expressed from – Hamlet. *
- Fair is foul, & foul is fair’ is quoted by – Macbeth (1606).
- Calliban is a character in – Tempest
- Cowards die many times before their death – is quoted from Julius Caesar.
- A Shakespearean plays consists of five acts.
- ‘Brevity is the soul of wit’ is quoted by Shakespeare
- Called ‘The bird of Avon’
- Ben Johnson(1573-1637): Comedy – The Silent Woman*, The Alchemist
- Francis Bacon(1561-1626) (essayist)
- Works- Novum Organum, The advancement of Learning
- Considered to be the father of English prose. *
- Robert Herrick (1592-1674)(poet)
- To Daffodils, Hesperides,
- In the poem ‘To Daffodils’ the poet weeps over – short-lived human life. *
(d) Puritan period (1620-1660)
- John Milton (1620-1674) (epic poet)
- ‘Paradise Lost’ attempted to – justify the ways of God to man.(14thBCS)
- He was called the ‘great master of verse,
- Works- On the Blindness (sonnets), Paradise Regained* (epic), Lycidas*, Areopagitica(prose)
- John Bunyan (1628-1688) : works – The pilgrims Progress
Neo-Classical period (1660-1798)
(a). Restoration period (1660-1700)
- John Dryden (1631-1700): Known as ‘Father of modern English criticism’
(b). Augustan period (1700-1745)
- Daniel Defoe (1661-1731)
- The father of English novel
- works – Robinson Crusoe,
- Alexander pope (1688-1744)
- Fools rush in where angels fear to treat’ is quoted by – Alexander pope.
- To err is human, to forgive is diving – Alexander pope. *
- A little learning is a dangerous thing.
- Charms strike the sight, but merit wins the soul.
- He was called ‘Mock heroic poet’*
- works – The Rape of the Lock*,
- Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)
- Most famous satirist in English literature**
- works – Gulliver’s Travels
- Samuel Richardson (1681-1761): The first English novel ‘Pamela’ has been written by him
- Henry Fielding (1707-1754)
- Tom Jones’ was first published in – 1sthalf of 19 century. **
- Considered to be the father of English Novel. *
(c). The age of Johnson (1751-1798)
- Dr. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784): The first English Dictionary was compiled by – Dr. Samuel Johnson. **
- Thomas Gray (1716-1771): Full man a flower is born to blush unseen, & waste its sweetness in the desert air. *
Romantic period (1798-1832)
- William Blake (1757-1828)
- both a poet & painter**
- Works – Marriage of Heaven & Hell
- William Wordsworth (1770-1850)
- He is called ‘Poet of Nature’*, ‘Poet of Childhood’ , ‘Lake poet’
- Wordsworth was inspired by – the French Revolution
- Works – The Solitary Reaper(romantic poem), The Daffodils(poem), The Escursion,
- The child is father of a man’ is taken from his writings
- Ten thousand saw at a glance tossing their heads in sprightly dance – Daffodils
- T. Coleridge (1772-1834)
- He is also called ‘Lake poet’ , poet of Supernaturalism, Opium Eater
- The English poet who addicted to opium
- He prayeth best who loveth best*
- Works – Kubla Khan(a verse)**
- Water, water everywhere… not a drop to drink occurs in – The Ancient Mariner. *
- Lord Byron (1788-1824)
- The Rebel poet in English literature. *
- Death is ‘a short sleep’*
- Percy Byssi Shelley’s (1792-1822)
- He was called the ‘Revolutionary poet’ , ‘Poet of Hope & Regeneration’
- Works –The Revolt of Islam,
- Our sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest thoughts’ quotation from – To a Skylark*
- We look before & after & pine for what is not – To a Skylark*
- Oh lift me as a wave, a leaf, a cloud; I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed.’ – Ode to the west wind. *
- If winter comes can spring be far behind – Ode to the west wind. *
- Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world*
- John Keats (1795-1821)
- Is called the ‘poet of beauty’.
- Was the poet of Romantic Age. Died of Tuberculosis.
- A famous English poet who was professionally known as a man of medicine.
- A thing is joy for ever’ was state by – John Keats.
- Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard are sweeter’ is quoted by – Keats.
- Works – Ode on a Grecian Urn , ‘Beauty is truth, truth is beauty’
- My heart aches, & a drowsy numbness pains. My sense, as though of hemlock I had drunk’ – Ode to a Nightingale.
- Jane Austen (1775-1832), Novelist: Sense & Sensibility, Pride & prejudice,
- Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), Novelist: Patriotism, Ivan Hoe*
- Charles Lamb 1775-1834), British essayist: Some books are to be tested, others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed & digested – Charles Lamb
Victorian period (1832-1901)
- The Victorian period was – 19th**
- New Arabian Nights’ is written by – R.L. Stevenson.
- Alfred Tennyson (1809-1892)
- works – Ulysses*, In Memoriam(poem)(an elegy)
- Robert Browning (1812-1889)
- works – Man & women, The Patriot(Poem)
- Robert Browning was the composer of – Andrea Del Sarto. **
- The poet of Victorian age**
- Charles Dickens (1812-1870)(Novelist): A Tale of Two Cities* (novel), Professor Shirly, David Copperfield*
- George Eliot (1818-1880) (Novelist): Her real name is Mary Ann Evans. *
- M. Thackeray (1811-1863) (Novelist): Vanity Fair(novel)
- Thomas Hardy (1840-1880) (Novelist): The Return of the Native
- Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) Irish: The Picture of Dorian Gray
Modern Age (1901- )
- Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) (Novelist) (born in India): The Jungle Book
- Joseph Conrad (1857-1924) Novelist: Lord Jim
- G. Wells (1866-1946) Novelist: The time Machine (science fiction)
- M. Forster (1879-1924) Novelist: A passage to India
- Somerset Maugham (1874-1965) Novelist: The Luncheon(short story), Of Human Bondage,
- H. Lawrence (1885-1930) (Novelist): Lady Chatterley’s Lover(novel), The Rainbow(novel)**, Son & Lovers,
- Bertrand Russell (1872 –1970):
- Road to Freedom,
- The modern British Philosopher who was awarded Novel Prize for literature. **
- Gorge Orwell (1903-1950)(Novelist)
- Real name Eric Arthur Blair
- works – Animal Farm** , Nineteen Eighty Four,
- William Golding (1911-1993) (Novelist): Lord of the Flies(novel)
- Winston Churchill (Novelist)
- The statesman but awarded novel prize (1953) in literature. *
- England expects every man to do his duty. *
- S. Eliot (1888-1965) (Modern poet)
- Murder in the Cathedral, The Waste Land*(novel prize),
- Born in USA**
- Is famous for the theory of ‘Objective Co-relative’.
- George Bernard Shaw (1850-1950)
- Works – Caesar & Cleopatra(play) **, Man & Superman
- Who is the greatest modern English Dramatist/ Playwright **
- Real name William Sydney Porter. **
- The Gift of the Magi
- Famous for short story.
- Ernest Hemingway (1899 – 1961)
- works – A Farewell to Arms**, For whom the Bell Tolls **, The Old Man & the Sea*, Indian Camp
- William Faulkner: American*
- Her Man Melville: ‘Moby Dick’ deals with – a whale*
- Harriet Stowe (1811-1896): Uncle Tom’s Cabin*
- Pearl S. Buck (1892-1973) American: The Good Earth
- Alex Haley (1921 – 1992): Novel – Roots
- Alexander Dumas* 1829–1870: Three Musketeers*
- Rousseau (1712 – 1778)
- “Man was born free, but everywhere hi is in chains’ is quoted from – The Social Contract
- works – Émile: or, on Education
- Leo Tolstoy 1828- 1910): Works – war & Peace*, Anna Karenina
- Alexander Solzhenitsyn (1918-2008), Novelist: works – Cancer Word*
Goethe (1749-1832): greatest poet of Germany
Homer (Greek, epic poet, around 850BC): ‘The Odyssey’*, ‘The Iliad’*