Scientific management approach is also known as the productivity or efficiency approach. The credit for pioneering and developing scientific management approach is primarily given to F. W. Taylor. He is recognised as the father of scientific management. The other individuals who contributed to this school of management thought are Frank Gilkreth, Lillian Gillreth, Henry Gantt and Harrington Emerson. Scientific management school concentrates on the process of finding one best way of doing a thing in order to achieve maximum production and efficiency.


Philosophy and Principles of Taylor :

  • Develop a science to replace rule of thumb
  • Labour – Management Cooperation
  • Maximization of output or production
  • Equal division of responsibility
  • Job specialization
  • Scientific selection, training and development of workers.
  • Planning and scheduling of work
  • Standardisation
  • Wage incentives
  • Mental Revolution


Mechanism of Scientific Management : In order to blend philosophy and principles of scientific management into practice, Taylor developed the following techniques or mechanism :-


(1) Scientific Task Setting : The task of every worker for everyday should be

determined through scientific investigation.


(2) Experimentation or Work Study : Work Study means organised systematic and objective analysis and assessment of the operational efficiency of all the elements connected with the work. The main areas of work study are as follows :-

(i) Method Study : Survey of production process.

(ii) Motion Study : The study of movement of a worker or a machine in doing a job.

(iii) Time Study : Find out a standard time for doing the job.

(iv) Fatigue Study : Fatigue study is the study of the reduction of human energy in doing his job.

(3) Planning : Planning function should be separated from the doing function.

(4) Scientific Selection and Training of Worker.

(5) Specialization : Allocate the task according to their specialization.

(6) Standardisation : Taylor advocated for standardisation of material, tools equipment, method etc..

(7) Efficient Costing System : To control cost of production and pricing.

(8) Incentive Wage Plan : Worker is to receive a bonus in addition to his wages if he completed his jobs before the standard fixed time.

(9) Congenial Atmosphere of Work : The environment must also be cheerful and psychologically satisfactory