Posted on: Tuesday, September 19, 2017
A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a citizen based association that operates independently of government, usually to deliver resources or serve some social or political purposes. Thus, NGOs are not only non-governmental but voluntary also. So, it is referred to as any agency that isn't controlled by govt. can be regarded as an NGO. The government of People's Republic of Bangladesh has established Bangladesh NGO Foundation to support the NGOs, with a view to associate the non-governmental organization in the process of achieving millennium development goal. The foundation is established for financing NGOs and other voluntary organizations including community based organizations (CBOs) and providing basic social services such as education, nutrition and health, sanitation support, safe drinking water and any other services needed by the poor, women and children and the ethnic minorities.
After the independence of Bangladesh, the number of NGOs has increased drastically. The timing of their approaches of intervention has also changed, i.e., from relief operations to self-reliant development. in recent times, the NGOs approach to development is essentially to target group approach. NGOs started their operations in Bangladesh as relief organization after the 1970 cyclone. Bangladesh has been regarded as a land of NGOs (World Bank, 1995).The mushroom growth of NGOs in Bangladesh is partly due to the increase in foreign aid and humanitarian help to cope with many natural disasters that Bangladesh often experience. So it is clear that NGOs are those organizations which are one way or the other involved in the development or welfare oriented activities.
The unique contribution of the NGOs isn't confined to the delivery of social services and pro-poor advocacy. They have developed commercial ventures in order to link poor producers with input and output markets, as well as to develop a source of internally generated revenue for the organizations. Analyzing NGOs activity, the NGO sector and individual organizations within it stand out bye virtue of their scale. There are an estimated 2000 development NGOs and a small group of them are among the largest such organizations are BRAC, ASA, PROSHIKA, UN IN Bangladesh etc.
BRAC It works with people who lives are dominated by extreme poverty, illiteracy, disease and other handicaps. BRAC, receiving about three-fourths of donor resources and accounting for a similar share of primary enrollment of in NGO schools. BRAC also franchises its model by controlling 200 small NGOs to deliver non formal education programmes.
Association for Social Advancement (ASA) It provides micro credit financing. The founding framework of ASA was aimed at empowering rural landless villagers from the 'bottom up' through people's organization. ASA has currently over 2.2 million members forming different groups with special emphasis on saving practice and 8000 employees engaged in saving deposits. Since, it has become a fully self-sufficient microfinance institution, operating mainly in Bangladesh and at present, it offers a wide range of financial services to its clients, including microcredit, small business credit, voluntary saving and life insurance, low cost system of organization savings, management and credit operation.
PROSHIKA The activities of Proshika are structural poverty alleviation, environmental protection and regeneration, improvement in women's status, increasing people's participation in public institution, thus the network of activities in which proshika is involved links the poorest of the poor with link-minded development actors worldwide. On average 1.3 members from each household having 5.5 members, this translates into over 11.72 million programmes beneficiaries of PROSHIKA.
UN in Bangladesh The UN country team in Bangladesh comprises all UN agencies based in Dhaka including UNDP,UNICEF,WFP,UNFPA,WHO,UNESCO,ILO and including the wider UN family, the world bank, IOM and IMF works with poor communities to find lasting solutions to poverty.
NGOs in Bangladesh like to manifest themselves as advocates of social change. For bringing effective social change the priority is to eradicate all kinds of discrimination in the society. For effective social change in Bangladesh, empowerment of women is the first thing to do. NGOs would like to involve these women and enhance their participation in the development process. In Bangladesh, for the development, NGOs are contributing by the humanitarian progress and structural development of organization for rural poor, employment generation, organizing groups and participation of the beneficiaries, providing microcredit, providing formal and informal education targeting poor rural women as beneficiary, giving relief and rehabilitation projects, providing health, nutrition and hygiene facilities, developing human resource, specific target setting for poor, achieving speedier economic growth process, creating awareness and developing leadership for the landless and less facilitated ones.
Contribution of NGO in the development of Bangladesh is based on the grassroots level activities of the beneficiaries in the selected area of Bangladesh. The people who receive different benefits from NGOs and become NGO members are more likely to undertake income generating activities, raise their income and productivity, attain self reliance in meeting their socio economic and other welfare needs them those of their comparable non beneficiaries. Beside these, some limitations are observed in the NGOs for the shortage of efficient employees and high employee attraction, lack of financial sustainability, low level of inter sectoral co-operation, lack of information and relevant research, political pressure and political instability, inadequate training and low level of true professionalism among employees, lack of job security etc. If NGOs can overcome this limitation, then it can surely be hoped that they continue playing an important role in the development of Bangladesh.
Challenges facing NGOs in Bangladesh work under many constraints and challenges. Some of these challenges are: (a) lack of financial sustainability; (b) shortage of efficient employees and high employee attrition; (c) inadequate infrastructure; (d) undue interference and control by the government; (e) lengthy fund release process; (f) low level of inter-sectoral cooperation; (g) inadequate training and low level of true professionalism among employees often aggravated by lack of job security; (h) lack of information and relevant research; (i) religious conservatism and militancy, and threat of terrorism; (j) political pressure and political instability; k) Unfavorable tax regime; and (l) natural calamities.