Posted on: Tuesday, September 19, 2017
Introduction The problem of unemployment seems to be one of the most painful problems in the modern world. Not only are the underdeveloped countries suffering from this problem, but also the highly industrialized and developed countries are not free from this difficulty. It is quite frustrating that more than 40% of the labor force is unemployed in Bangladesh. The problem is one of the major constraints towards economic development of our country.
Definition Actually unemployed are those workers who have ability and willingness to work at the prevailing wage rate, but they do not get employment according to their qualification or productive capacity. According to professor Pigou, "A man is only unemployed when he is both not in employment and also desires to be employed."
Cyclical unemployment During the period of depression the volume of production is reduced. As a result, demand for labor falls, which results in a considerable unemployment of labor. Depression is one of the important phases of trade cycle. So unemployment resulted from depression is called cyclical unemployment.
Disguised unemployment If the workers employed in a productive sector are estimated to be more than their actual requirements, and all the employed laborers get their wages at uniform rate, employment of excess people in this case is to create disguised unemployment.
Unemployment problem in Bangladesh Unemployment is one of the most important economic problems in Bangladesh. A large portion of labor force of the country is suffering from the problem of unemployment and underemployment. But at present it is difficult to say the exact volume of unemployment in the country unless fresh and accurate population census is made.
Causes of unemployment in Bangladesh The problem of unemployment prevails in Bangladesh for various reasons. They may be discussed under the following heads: 1. Excessive dependence on Agriculture 2. Economic Backwards 3. Defective Education system 4. Growth of Population 5. Apathy towards manual labor 6. Depression 7. Lack of technical knowledge 8. Social and religious environment
Measures to solve the unemployment in Bangladesh Speedy solution of unemployment in Bangladesh is essential. For this purpose, the following measures can be suggested:
Solving the seasonal unemployment problem To solve the seasonal unemployment problem in agriculture sector, cottage industry must be extended and developed in rural areas so that unemployed farmers in slack season can be provided with subsidiary occupation. With the extension of rural cottage industries, a large number of women and children will also get opportunity to work in these industries.
Solving cyclical unemployment When trade and commerce of the country faces depression, government should accelerate and extend public expenditures for the construction of roads and bridges, government buildings, and for the development of transport and communication and also for the establishment of some new industries in public sector. This will remove cyclical unemployment.
Recognizing the education system Our education system should be completely recognized. More and more technical, engineering and professional institutes should be established in the country so that the major portion of educated people can acquire technical and specialized professional knowledge.
Giving necessary technical training In order to avoid technological unemployment, all the existing workers should be given necessary technical training about the new technique of production to be introduced in any industry.
Reforming the social and religious environment Caste and joint family system and system of veil should be reformed. Over and above, all social superstitions, conservatism and narrowness should be abolished.
Implementation of family planning program effectively All the necessary measures must be taken on priority basis to make the family planning program successful so that the excessive population growth can be checked. Effective population control will considerably help to solve the unemployment problem of the country.
By setting up unemployment exchange centers More and more employment exchange centers should be stup through our country. They will collect the particulars and necessary information of unemployed people and try to provide them with employment contracting various employers who are in need of employees.
Export manpower Bangladesh exports a huge manpower every year. This has solved the problem to some extent. Export of more and more manpower may provide temporary relief.
Economic development Economic development is the fundamental solution to the problem of unemployment. So effective economic plans should be chalked out by the planning commission and the plans must be executed towards desired direction. If over all economic development can be brought about in the country by proper harnessing of all our natural resources, the problem of unemployment is likely to disappear permanently.
Conclusion Frankly speaking, unemployment is a curse for Bangladesh. If the above measures can be effectively taken as early as possible, we will be able to free ourselves from the evil consequences of unemployment prevailing in the country. We all should work hard to solve the problem of unemployment. We must not feel ashamed of doing manual labor. It is not possible for the government to give employment to all. Self employment is the best solution to this problem.